Publications >

Service Life of Rehabilitated Buildings and Other Structures
Kelley, Stephen J. and Marshall, Philip C., editors "Service life of rehabiltated buildings and other structures." STP 1098, Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials, 1990.

Limited preview on Google Books.


Contents -- Papers
Part I — Maintenance Management Baases and Service Life
Part II — Extrinsic Factors and Service Life
Part III — Case Studies: Building Materials and Service Life
Part IV — Case Studies: Building Systems and Service Life


The symposium on Service Life of Rehabilitated Buildings and Other Structures was presented at Cincinnati, OH, on 27 April 1987. The ASTM Committee E-6 on Performance of Building Constructions, the Association of Preservation Technology, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and the National Park Service sponsored the symposium. David G. Battle, National Park Service, Philip C. Marshall, Southeastern Massachusetts University, and Wayne Ellis, Consultant, served as co-chairmen of the symposium. Stephen J. Kelley, Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., and Philip C. Marshall are editors of the resulting publication.




Asset Management Information System (AMIS ) for Environment Canada Parks

A Maintenance Specifications Database for the National Park Service

A Condition Assessment Process Developed for Use in the Private Sector


Service Life Prediction and Life-Cycle Costing for Materials Damage as a Result of Acid Deposition

"The Rehab Code": The Buildings Officials and Code Administrators, International, Inc. (BOCA) Approach to Code Equivalencies in Rehabilitation


Life Expectancy for the Statue or Liberty

The Next 120 Years: Service Lire Issues in the Preservation or Cape Hatteras

An Analysis of the Performance and Service Life of the Concrete Structure of
Unity Temple, Oak Park, Illinois

Problems Affecting the Service Life of Exterior Sandstone: Case Study, the
Burlington, Iowa Free Library

Part IV — Case Studies: Building Systems and Service Life


Assessment of Building Facades in Masonry and Stone

The Montague Building and Watauga Hall: A Comparison of Predicted Service Life Based on Building Materials


The preservation and rehabilitation of buildings and other structures is a requirement of good stewardship of the nation's investment in its infrastructure. It has also become increasingly important as a way of protecting our cultural heritage in the form of historic architectural landmarks and monuments. The decision to rehabilitate a structure entails a commitment to long-term preservation and maintenance. This commitment in turn requires an evaluation of the future service of the treated structure and the durability of its materials and systems. In considering preservation of the built environment, the practitioner must address the materials to be preserved and the applicability and feasibility of the means available to preserve them. The service life of existing structures, and of methods and materials used to conserve them, is of growing importance in the United States and Canada as our old structures grow older and our newer structures grow old.

This Special Technical Publication has been published as a result of the 1987 Symposium on Service Life of Rehabilitated Buildings and Other Structures which was held in Cincinnati, Ohio. The purpose of the Symposium was to give definition to some of the problems and suggest future directions for improved methods in the prediction of service life. The Symposium was initiated by ASTM Committee E-6 on Performance of Building Constructions and its Subcommittee E06.24 on Building Preservation and Rehabilitation Technology. The Association for Preservation Technology (APT), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and National Park Service (NPS) joined ASTM Committee E-6 in sponsorship of the Symposium.

The Symposium draws from the experience and expertise of practitioners in both the public and private sector in the United States and Canada. Active participation by colleagues from Canada demonstrates a shared concern for this important subject and also underscores the objective of ASTM to draw upon international resources in the development of standards.

The eleven papers presented within this STP give a state-of-the-art review of issues dealing with the service life of historic buildings and structures. Burgeoning interest in this topic suggests that a continuing review will be required to monitor the wide array of structures, systems, and materials involved; the depth and scope of intervention involved, and the ongoing introduction of new and increasingly complex structures which will need rehabilitation in the future.

The STP is organized in four parts. Part I provides an overview of management systems for existing structures that are in development by public agencies in Canada (Hum-Hartley et al.) and the United States (Battle) and by the private sector (Audet-Lapointe). Part II has examples of extrinsic factors and their effect on the service life of existing structures. Examples include acid rain (Livingston) and building code requirements (Meyer). Part III presents case studies on the service life of some of the nations best known historic structures with emphasis on the assessment of building materials. Materials that are discussed include copper (Cliver and Baboian), exterior paint systems and cast iron (Slaton), reinforced concrete (Hunderman and Rewerts), and red sandstone (Arbogast). Part IV presents case studies on the service life of existing structures with the emphasis on the assessment of building systems. Systems that are discussed include building facades of masonry and stone (Thomasen and Searls) and framed wood floors (Fischetti). An introduction at the front of each section correlates the papers to one another.

The Symposium findings will give direction to government agencies, property managers, building owners, practicing professionals, and standards specialists who have found it increasingly necessary to define the economic and physical service life of existing structures.

The Symposium presentations cited many existing standards. However, a need was established for the development of standards that would be applicable in the field or in situ, rather than under laboratory conditions only. Similarly, participants in the Symposium proposed modifying existing or developing new standards to aid in the determination of service life of buildings and other structures through the following: development of standard testing procedures of archaic building materials, definition of related preservation products and archaic building systems, and development of standard practices relative to preservation and rehabilitation services. That work is now proceeding within ASTM Subcommittee E06.24 on Building Preservation and Rehabilitation Technology.

There are several people without whose assistance the development of this Symposium and subsequent preparation of the STP would have been impossible. Special thanks go to Wayne Ellis and Dave Battle, Symposium Cochairs, together with Philip Marshall, Gerald Davis of the ASTM Committee on Publications, and Teri McMasters and Kathy Greene of ASTM Headquarters. The editors are especially grateful to all Symposium speakers and authors and the many reviewers whose time and expertise are reflected in the quality of this publication. Top

Stephen J. Kelley
Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc. Chicago, IL; symposium editor.

Philip C. Marshall
Southeastern Massachusetts University, North Dartmouth, MA; symposium cochairman and editor.

Part I — Maintenance Management Bases and Service Life


The following three papers provide an overview of long-term management systems that are being developed by the Canadian Parks Service (Hum-Hartley et al.), the National Park Service (Battle), and the private sector (Audet-Lapointe).

With the public agencies in Canada and the United States, the administration of very large inventories of property has accentuated the need for standardization of maintenance approaches. The Canadian Park Service is mandated to preserve Canada's cultural heritage in properties with an estimated value of 3.38 billion Canadian dollars (CDN$) including significant heritage properties. The National Park Service has approximately 13 000 culturally significant structures under its jurisdiction. The approaches described vary somewhat in terminology, scope, and complexity but are similar in their patterns of evolution which are continuing.

Hum-Hartley et al. describe the Asset Management Information System (AMIS) which when implemented will be a tool to aid in the effective management of Canada's vast and diverse inventory of assets. AMIS is a framework of integrated computer processes linked through a national computer communications network. Its objective is to allow managers to plan. schedule, monitor, and control maintenance activities. The AMIS framework recognizes that adequate routine maintenance is a key to successful asset management.

AMIS is envisioned as a decentralized system with primary access at each individual property. The components that make up the AMIS framework deal with routine maintenance management, major maintenance management, and a maintenance "storehouse" or database. The proposed implementation of inspections, data gathering, and database input is described by the authors and illustrative examples are given. A postscript updates the status of AMIS by describing problems encountered with the system and subsequent directions and emphases.

Battle discusses a computerized database of maintenance specifications for historic structures that is presently under development by the National Park Service of the United States. The concept of the database is tempered by the understanding that 80% of the effort that goes into preserving a structure should be routine maintenance. The form of the specifications are defined by the Park Service's objectives of maintenance: the preservation of original materials, workmanship, and appearance of the structure. An adherence to these principle objectives is crucial to avoid improper maintenance that can lead to future preservation projects that are unavoidable but may have otherwise been unnecessary.
The evolution of the prototype Historic Structure Preservation Guide (HSPG) to the present maintenance specification database is discussed. The author describes many of the problems encountered with its intended use, format, and implementation.

Audet-Lapointe describes a condition assessment process for use in the private sector, the interpretation of which is placed in the context of building management. The condition assessment process described is a tool to use research data from a database of models on aging building systems and building materials.
The condition assessment method is described in six stages starting with inspection, testing, and diagnosis of the problems and then proceeds into corrective measures, cost estimates, and the report of recommended procedures. Note that the physical aspects of aging buildings are defined in the context of building quality and obsolescence as well as the condition of building materials and systems. Furthermore, the condition assessment goes beyond the physical aspects and Considers other parameters such as building function, economy, and legal aspects. Top

Part II — Extrinsic Factors and Service Life


 The service life of existing structures is not only determined by the physical condition of the building or monument, but by extrinsic factors which include building code requirements, environmental conditions, and subsequent economic considerations. The following two papers present an overview of extrinsic factors and their effect on service life. Examples include acid rain (Livingston) and building code requirements (Meyer).

Acid deposition, and the subsequent deterioration on building elements, has been realized in North America for many years, but it has been only recently that the gathering of criteria to obtain a measure of the long-term effects of "acid rain" on materials has been attempted.

Livingston presents the prediction of service life and life-cycle costing relative to the effects of "acid rain" studies. The research presented relates to the program of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) with the objective to develop credible estimates of economic benefits that could result from the reduction of damage to building materials from acid deposition. The parameters and assumptions of the mathematical model presented are discussed and include the specific materials under consideration, the emphasis on architectural rather than structural components, and the wide array of building structures that must be encompassed. The large assortment of variables involved and the implications of the simplified assumptions that were used are commented upon.

Meyer presents the recent development of the Building Officials Code Administration (BOCA) code provision for the "repair, alteration, addition to, and change of use of existing buildings." This provision now in use, provides a means by which otherwise nonconforming structures can meet building code requirements. The provision described is a creative way of determining code compliance that is sensitive to existing structures and recognizes their potential extended service life. Top

Part III — Case Studies: Building MAterials and Service Life


 The following four papers address ways in which individual building materials are assessed before, during, and after rehabilitation of existing structures. Case studies on the service life of some of the nation's best known historic structures are presented. Materials that are discussed include copper (Cliver and Baboian), exterior paint systems and cast iron (Slaton). reinforced concrete (Hunderman and Rewerts), and red sandstone (Arbogast).

Cliver and Baboian discuss analysis that was performed as a part of the preservation of a U.S. icon, the Statue of Liberty. Constructed in 1884, this national symbol is also an early use of an independent steel frame which fully supports an exterior skin. The statue required attention because of the effects of environmental pollutants on the copper skin and galvanic action between dissimilar metals, in this case, the copper skin and the wrought iron bars which connected it to the steel frame. Chemical testing of alternative metals to replace the wrought iron bars is described. The causes and effects of environmental weathering on the monument are discussed. It is significant that preservation efforts focused on protection of the copper patina rather than its removal.

Slaton addresses a program of laboratory and field testing for conservation of the paint and metal at the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse, a well-known national historic landmark constructed in 1869. The 200-ft (61-in) tall lighthouse is constructed of a brick and granite shaft surmounted by a cast iron and glass lantern and gallery. The lighthouse has been threatened by the harshness of its marine environment and related deterioration of its exterior iron elements, as well as the erosion of the nearby shoreline. The testing program described was the basis for the preparation of specifications for preservation.

Hunderman and Rewerts describe the investigative program that was implemented to evaluate the reinforced concrete of Unity Temple constructed in 1907. This Frank Lloyd Wright designed church is an early use of concrete technology in which the concrete is used for architectural expression as well as structure. The original design of the concrete elements has significantly affected the service life and appearance of the structure. The original construction technology; distress, which has occurred over the life of the structure; and previous repair programs are all discussed. The procedure described was used to develop a program for further investigation to determine appropriate methods of preservation.

Arbogast describes a basic nonintrusive visual inspection program to examine the exterior red sandstone facade of the Burlington Free Library constructed in 1888. The library was constructed before sandstone fell into disfavor for use in building construction because of durability problems. The physical makeup of the stone, types of distress, and problems caused by previously applied clear sealers are discussed. The sandstone is portrayed as one of a large array of similar stones that cannot be simply preserved based upon general categorization. Direction is given on pertinent issues in the preservation of archaic materials that are no longer available. Top

Part IV — Case Studies: Building Systems and Service Life


 The following two papers address ways in which distinct building systems are assessed in relation to the service life of existing structures. Case studies include building facades of masonry and stone (Thomasen and. Searls) and framed wood floors (Fischetti).

Thomasen and Searls present a method for the assessment of building facades constructed of masonry and stone. The investigative tools described range from basic to sophisticated. The importance of having a grasp of basic knowledge of the history of the technology behind the facade system to be evaluated is stressed. In addition, an understanding of the factors that affect the condition as well as the durability of the assemblages within the system as they conform to modern criteria is discussed. Material analyses and weathering tests that are performed in the laboratory to determine durability are described. Monitoring techniques used to obtain a measure of facade movement behavior in the field are also described.

Fischetti places the task of meeting building code requirements in an economic context through case studies of rehabilitated timber frame buildings. The author describes the dilemma of depth of intervention to extend the service life in contrast with tax credits. The comparative case studies deal with two examples of structures similar in age. construction. and function; the first in which the interior structural system is replaced with an alternate system and the second in which the existing system is strengthened. The method of the investigative process with emphasis on laboratory testing of materials is described. Top