Teaching > Architectural Conservation (HP
382) > Assignments >
Quarry, Dorset, Vermont.
Rock to Stone — Assignment 110316
Use of the dimensional stone may range from random rubble or
roughly coursed ashlar for foundations; to trimwork for splash
courses, window and door openings, and steps; to entire exterior
walls ranging from random rubble to coursed ashlar; to roofing
slate – and many other applications.
The stone may be any rock type: igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary.
Or you may select sediments, aggregate, products from the regolith
used in building construction.
- Research mid-19th-centuryand late-20th-century state geological maps and publications (annual; special, industry-specific issues; maps
of statewide surveys); U.S.G.S maps, historic annual reports,
- A main source for bedrock maps is geologic maps of US states, USGS. Go to a state, scroll down to "view" and download the <.klm> file to open in Google Earth.
- Select an area with information available about:
- bedrock or
- surficial geology
- View examples of examining outcrops, roadcuts, quarries.
- Marble,Cockeysville, Maryland, Geoblog, NVCC
- Use in construction of the Washington Monument, USGS
- Tonalite, Port Deposit, Maryland, Geoblog, NVCC
- Access a location of the source rock in the area (ideally the source for the building stone)
- Research the area geology and rock type(s) in advance.
- The location may be a quarry or gravel pit (abandoned or operating), outcrop, and/or roadcut that exhibits a similar rock type to that which was quarried
- You will
likely need a mason's hammer and chisel to obtain a sample.
- Wear protective eyewear whenever obtaining samples.
- Keep away
from high and steep faces of rock (quarries, roadcuts, etc.),
especially in the springtime as weathering during the winter
may cause rocks to fall—on you.
- Develop your own hand-written description of the lithology w based on the selected site(s). Include:
- beds (if present)
- structure (folding, faulting,
- weathering and erosion
- other factors affecting
its appearance and condition
- large-scale description of the source
- close-up description of the rock (for use below for petrographic description)
- Include written description in report.
- Sketch location. Include sketch in report.
- Indicate major lithographic features
- Indicate photographed areas
- photograph the location/rock. Include:
- large-scale images of the source
- detailed images of the rock
- use a scale in the photographs. (No commercial products. Best to use a sclae/ruler, hammer.)
- Identify the views, including compass direction
- Obtain a representative hand sample.
- Sample size to be approximately 4" x 6" x 2".
- If necessary, obtain more
than one sample.
- Shape sample on site so it exhibits a weathered
surface and freshly exposed surface.
- Provide a label noting
location, collector, date.
- Note: Do not plan of taking sample as carry-on baggage on any flight as it may be confiscated by TSA.
- Identify the location on:
- Google Earth or Google Maps, capturing a 640x480 image.
- Locate by latitude/longtitude
- Include select geological maps, citing the source
- Image captures to be at least 640x480 pixels; ideally 1024x786.
mesoscopic (between microscopic and macroscopic; here: foliation and lineation, ussc)
- Identify Lithology w and Petrography w / w, including cited references as needed.
- Rock type w
- Grain/clast size w
- Mineralogy w / w
- Color(s) w, using Munsell Soil Chart
- Fabric w / w
- Texture w / w
- Small-scale structures w
- Weathering and erosion
- Surficial lithology w (as needed)
- Petrography w / w
- Mineralogy w
- Texture w
- Spatial and temporal identification
- Geological unit w
- Group name
- Formation name w
- Commercial name(s), if applicable
- Age w. Include:
- Period, with approximate date(s)
- Reference specific maps, scientific literature; cite source
- If applicable, note quarrying operations, name of quarry, owner and/or contact person.
- View examples of examing building stones, in situ.
- Building Stones of our Nation's Capitol, USGS
- Undertake a visual survey of masonry buildings in the area.
- what local rock is employed
- how is it employed as a building stone
- Select at least one masonry bulding that exhibits characteristic treatment of local stone.
- Identify site/buildings by:
- name, historic and, if available name on National Register nomination
- date of
construction (and changes, if relevant)
- architect and builder, and
- Write a brief (one paragraph) architectural description of
the structure. If listed in the National Register (or state survey) a description
is available; Use and cite this resource, or others, as needed.
- In detail, describe the characteristics of the stone as it
is employed for architectural purposes. Note:
- elements employing
the stone (foundation, lintels, sills, quoins...)
- dimensions of stock
- quarrying (plug-and-feather...) and
- finishing techniques
(quarry faced, pitched, patent hammer...) indicated by toolwork
- architectural and physical
relation with design intent and construction of building
- physical condition (noting ways in
which the material may be failing; and the causes). Note how the following affect performance:
- structure: foliation, cleavage, fracturing, jointing afftects performance
- photograph, use scale in
- Look around the neighborhood, town to see what other buildings
employ the same stone. Talk to people in the community: local
historians, craftspeople, monument dealers (who see stone monumental
stone from all over the world, but who may still know a lot
about historic stone industries in the area). Is there a "Quarry
Steet," or other streets
leading to historic industries?
- Look for local historic resources indicating
quarries (reference citations, images, other sources; repositories):
- geological surveys
- maps (Henry F. Walling maps, Beer's Atlas, Sanborn Fire Insurance maps)
- other resource
- Prepare a report (for presentation) to include all the material above including, but not limited to:
- presentation graphic, to be plotted out
- written report with images (captioned, cited), footnotes, bibliography
- photographs of site work
- image captures of geological or topographic maps, historical
materials and maps
- rock sample, with geological and topographical
- provide in digital form.
- Bring in:
- presentation graphic, to be plotted out
- rock sample(s), labeled