Teaching > HP
442 Professional Practices >
|The important or vital task rarely must be done
today or even this week. The urgent task calls for instant
action. The momentary appeal of these tasks seems irresistible
and they devour our energy. But in the light of times perspective,
their deceptive prominence fades. With a sense of loss, we
recall the vital task we have pushed aside; we realize we
have become slaves to the tyranny of the urgent. Charles
- have an increased awareness of the value of more effectively
managing your time
- have, in writing, your own clearly defined time management
As part of these lectures on time management you will be
asked to develop your own ideas for more effectively managing
your time; develop these specific, measurable time management
goals; prioritize them; and integrate them into your daily planning.
- have a system for writing both your personal and professional
(including student) life goals
- have a system for planning and control in carrying out your
carry out your goals
What is Time Management?
- What time is it?
- What is time? Functional definition.
- Time: the occurrence of events, in sequence: one after another
- Management: the act of controlling or directing
- Time management: the act of controlling events
Are you in control of all the events around you? Are you out
Do you understand the nature of events, or you control over them?
- Conditions of controlling events
- events we know we can not control - we accept and adapt, do
not fight and struggle
- events we think we can not control but we can - we overcome
fear and doubt
- events we think can control but we do not - lack of self-esteem,
- events we think we can control but we can not - out of touch
with reality, setting unreachable goals
- events we can control and we do - placing a value on an event,
and making it a goal gives it a priority, high goal, high self-esteem:
"I can control events."
- Goals: an idea directed to a desired result; realizing,
reaching, or achieving the idea, which is both predetermined
- value may be low or high
- prioritizing places a low or high value on and idea
- preoccupation: your attention engaged on something other than
the present events, out of touch with reality
- congruity: balance, harmony with events in your life, healthy
distribution of work and
- incongruity: out of balance (workaholic, party animal)
- review of time management
What are your own individual time management problems?
- problem...solution is developed through a plan....or planning
How much time do you spend each day in daily planning?
How much time do you spend each day in long-range and intermediate-range
How much time do you spend each day in integrating you long-
and intermediate range plans into your daily plans?
- Integrating time management goals - planning - at least five
hours of planning
Write as time management goal in Daytimer.
- 15 to 30 minutes of daily planning every morning - refer to
every day along with "principles" and "goals"
- Write as time management goal in Daytimer - each day.
- separate work (school) and personal
- break down large projects into small tasks
- develop outlines, concentrate on small specific tasks, which
have been prioritized
- plan activities to produce results not simply generate activity
- make an appointment "to meet with yourself - alone" for planning
or specific work
- block out time in your calendar, meet you appointment
- set realistic goals
- schedule non-discretionary (fixed) blocks of time first, then
schedule discretionary time with vital, prioritized items
- anticipate interruptions and seek means to deal with them
before they occur
- concentration of power
A = vital
B = very important
C = limited/some value
* = urgent
D = complete waste
TM = time management (plan time to help improve time management
- vital and trivial
- vital and urgent
- urgent trivialities: lower self-esteem, produces distress
as well as stress
- stress vs. distress
- focus on vital priorities
Day-Timer (or other planner)
- use only one book for all your records - the "Daytimer," other
- get rid of all other "to do today" pads, scraps of paper,
address books, desk and wall calendars
- put any planning information into the Daytimer
- write it down in the right place, and forget about it until
- you will no longer be preoccupied by thinking about when to
do a specific task
- "call me next Tuesday" will be written down on Tuesday
- make the Daytimer accessible: physically and visually
- check it for daily planning, appointments
- carry it with you everywhere
getting quotes or bids for work to be done
- talking to somebody about a commitment (time, work)
- write down names, subject, important information
- can refer to past telephone conversations easily
- (file on individual people)
writing: pencils, pens, colored pens
layout (refer to two-page per day format)
transfer from day to day
- make a new "daily action list" every day, with new items,
how to retrieve data
- Divide up work and personal, divide up into sections for each:
- work (school): correspondence, classes, phone calls, volunteer
- personal: home/family, sports, civic, etc.
- description of desk, files, bookcases
- stacks of material (all important!?) on desk, "in" and "out"
file, pink telephone slips, several calendars (desk, wall),
stacks of bills, magazines... all urgent!
- theory of accessibility: visibly and access of all this material
reinforces bad habits, sense of urgency on unimportant matters.
- clean off desk, organize files and bookcases
- develop and reinforce good planning habits by having only
one project on your desk at a time: actually two, including
- Daytimer as "tool": The book itself will be of no more help
than any other - unless you learn how and when to use it, and
where it keep it. It should be the basis for determining what
you will be working on, and when.
- handle material only once
- when in doubt, toss it out?
- maintaining files
- write agenda beforehand (double preparation time)
- set time limit for meeting, start and end on time
- note attendees, write minutes and make "to do" list, copy
- 100% responsibility
Procrastination - how to avoid
- make a prioritized daily action list
- make a "catch-all" list during each month, refer to during
- refer to long range goal list
- have one thing on desk in the morning
- if you have an overwhelming project, break it into smaller
- do not stop on a project until it is done, plan a reward at
- anticipate interruption - deal with before they become a problem
- plan interruptions at suitable time
- do the worst part of a project first
- have other people help you focus
- organize stray papers into stacks ("A," "B," "C," waste)
- select best time of day for work required
- allow for flexibility
- commit to a deadline
List the three worst ways you procrastinate:
Prioritize, set goals to reduce or eliminate.
- not enough planning
- ineffective delegation
- attempting too much
- reverse delegation
- unable to say "No!"
- lack self-discipline
- wrong choice of priorities
- interruptions l
- mistakes (own)
- failure to listen
- over control
- fear of offending
- unrealistic time estimates
- unable to terminate visits
- failure to anticipate
- goals not clearly defined
- slow reader
- emotionally upset
- overlong visit
- negative attitude
- waiting for decision
- mechanical failure
- mistakes (others)
- secretary ineffective
- problem not clear
- lack policies
- ack authority
- different value system
- lack of feedback
- role not clear
- low-priority memos
- shifting priorities
- lack clerical staff
- lack competent personnel
- changing priorities
List the three worst ways you waste time:
Prioritize, set goals to reduce or eliminate.
- increase awareness of better managing your time
- determine more precisely where your time is going: estimates
- locate time wasters and evaluate their effect on your day
- disclose vital priorities you may be neglecting
- locate the extent of congruity within your basic responsibilities
- help you assess the effectiveness of your time management
- make assessment of the extent to which you have slipped back
into old, ineffective time management habits
- assess the ratio of discretionary time, non-discretionary
- find out how much of the day is free and uncommitted
- Keep time log at least one week. Start now. Do not wait for
the "typical week."
- Fill in the eight categories. Examples include: planning,
classes, studying, meetings, telephone, television, socializing,
- Give your categories a one-day test run to make sure proper
activities are represented. Do not change the categories once
you have started.
- Carry the log everywhere you go. Note activities in appropriate
column every 15 to 20 minutes. Only write for 10 to 15 seconds
each time. About eight minutes each day.
- Enter time of day your begin under "start time" record subsequent
times in "time of last entry."
- Be completely honest with yourself.
- Record the level of importance for each event using: A, B,
C, D priority rating, as defined.
- Forecast the length of time you think you will spending each
general category before starting the log. Compare at
- Reconsider in light of how much you need to spend to better
achieve your goals.
- To compute actual percentages, add up all minutes in a category
and divide by total minutes in all categories.
Consider the following questions as a guide:
- In all the categories what was: forecast, actual, and what
should be planned in the future.
- Did I have a proper balance in the general categories?
- What were the most frequently occurring C's and D's?
- What percent of my time was spent on A's, B's, C's and D's?
- What C's and D's can be eliminated or reduced?
- What were the most frequent interruptions? How can they be
- What were the most frequent distractions? How can they be
- How much of a day was free or discretionary?
- How did the results compare each day to the priority goals
in mu daily action list?
- What could I have delegated to others?
- Which time of day was most and least productive for me?
- How can I consolidate routine work?
- What is my biggest time management problem? How can I eliminate
- principle of self-unification: principles and goals (preview)
- unifying principles; examples
- attaining self-unification: values and priorities, action
- "comfort zone" vs. adventure performance vs. excellent performance
- what is a goal
- how to plan goals
- Prepare goals within framework of unifying principles.
- Plan goals within reach of what you can accomplish.
- Write goal down.
- Make goal specific.
- Write the goal so results can be measured. Set date.
- See goal is my very own.
- Seek appropriate help.
- Ask, am I willing to pay the price?
Long-range personal life goals: categories, prioritize actions
to accomplish goal, balance
Categories for goal planning
Continuity between long-range, intermediate, and immediate goals
- Immediate goals: prioritized daily action list
- Which items will best help achieve my long-range and intermediate
high priority goals?
- What will help yield greatest long-term results?
- What will give the highest payoff?
- What will happen if I do not do each of these projects today?
- Who will it affect? Will anyone suffer?
- On a long-term basis, which items make me feel best to accomplish?
High priority goals
- Of my long-range and intermediate, high-priority goals, which
should I work on today?
- What projects will give me the highest return for the time
- What projects will be the greatest problem if I do not do
- What projects do my boss and colleagues consider most vital?
- What items of my previous list should I work on today?
- What do my unifying principles suggest?
- What has not been considered that will help yield long-term
Path of goal continuity
- unifying principles
- long-range goalsintermediate goals
- immediate goals (daily action list)
Techniques for enhancing relevancy
- Manage for results, not activity.
- Spontaneous goal: an idea directed toward a positive result.
- Do one thing at a time when thought is required.
- Handle papers only once.
- Use blank spaces of time. Work on "A-1" items.
- Draw pictures and make diagrams, charts.
- Make comparisons.
- Be on time. Leave with an "A-1" item.
- Cut meeting time and make it more productive.
- Double preparation time.
- Always use a written agenda
- Keep agenda visible.
- Commit to start and end times.
- Invite only necessary people for meeting.
- workspace planning
- Select the people who have the ability to do the job.
- See that it is clearly understood what you expect (train,
- Let them know you sincerely believe in their ability to carry
out the task.
- Secure commitment that they will follow through (reread job
- Negotiate a deadline
- Provide latitude for them to use their own imagination and
- Let them know in the beginning that you are going to follow
through. Do it.
- Do not do the job for them.
- Reward them commensurately with the results they produce.