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Preservation Treatment

 Preservation treatment refer to the action(s) or the resultant product(s) of the preservation of a structure. The treatments encompass the entire process of preservation from the initial investigation of a structure by professionals, through its "preservation" and subsequent use.

The following definitions cite (when possible) specific references in the literature. These several definitions of preservation terms do not seek to establish a single unique or correct meaning. Rather, they exemplify the evolution of any given term throughout time and the various meanings that the term has held in any specific period, including the present.

Additional terms and meanings certainly exist. They would be a welcome contribution to this compilation.


abandon Giving up ownership or control of a property. (Murtagh, William J. Keeping Time: The History and Theory of Preservation in America, Pittstown, New Jersey: The Main Street Press, 1988, p. 213)

adaptation Adaptation means modifying a place to suit proposed compatible uses. (The Australia ICOMOS Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance, "The Burra Charter,: 1979, rev. 1988, Article 1.9)

adaptive use The process of converting a building to a use other than that for which it was designed, e.g., changing a factory into housing. Such a conversion is accomplished with varying alterations to the building. (Murtagh, William J. Keeping Time: The History and Theory of Preservation in America, Pittstown, New Jersey: The Main Street Press, 1988, p. 213)

adaptive use means providing older structures that would otherwise be demolished with new functions. It usually involves extensive restoration and renovation of both the interior and exterior of the building. (Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: American Institute of Architects, Committee on Historic Resources, 1985, pamphlet)

addition Addition of something to the resource that did not exist before work began. It usually refers to the addition of some manufactured item to a structure, but could also refer to the addition of a new item to the structure or site. (Battle, David G. "A Maintenance Specifications Database for the National Park Service," Service Life for Rehabilitated Buildings and Other Structures, ASTM, STP 1098, Stephen J. Kelley and Philip C. Marshall, eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, 1990, p.23.)

analysis:

non-destructive Visual identification (employing the entire range of the electromagnetic spectrum: visible, infrared, x-ray) of a material, assemblage of materials, or system to describe its exact nature and separate parts. Non-destructive techniques will not destroy any existing fabric of a structure.

destructive Physical identification of a material, assemblage of materials, or system to describe and define its exact nature: the physical properties and chemical composition of its separate parts. Destructive analysis will destroy some existing fabric of a structure. Destruction can range from a limited sampling of materials for microscopic identification to a large section of a structure for in situ testing.

archaeological research Investigate project area, particularly on historically important sites, to recover, restore, and evaluate artifacts. (A Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, 1992, pamphlet)

archaeologist A qualified professional with a graduate degree in archaeology, anthropology, or a closely related field with specialized experience in research, field work, and analysis. The archaeologist is usually a consultant to the architect. (A Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, 1992, pamphlet)

architect The team leader is a registered architect, with considerable experience and five to six years of higher education, who has the overall responsibility for assuring that the project meets legal requirements for health, safety and the public welfare. With additional training or experience, this person may specialize in preservation activities. (A Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, 1992, pamphlet)

architectural conservation Architectural conservation utilizes special techniques to halt further deterioration of building materials. These techniques are based on a knowledge of earlier building technologies and the causes leading to deterioration of building materials. (Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: American Institute of Architects, Committee on Historic Resources, 1985, pamphlet)

architectural conservator An architect or skilled preservation technologist knowledgeable in conservation of architectural materials. Techniques of conservation require an emphasis on nondestructive investigations and the scientific applications of knowledge ranging from early building technologies to the causes of deterioration and preservation treatments for historic building materials. (Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: American Institute of Architects, Committee on Historic Resources, 1985, pamphlet, rev. 12/89)

architectural and engineering investigation Use archaeological and historical data and detailed physical analysis of the basic elements or "fabric" of the building (which may require removal of surface or decorative material) to determine what is original and what is not, together with sequence and dates of construction. This is required for the basic historic structures document. (A Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, 1992, pamphlet)

architectural heritage For the purposes of this Convention, the expression of "architectural heritage" shall be considered to comprise the following permanent properties:
1. Monuments: all buildings and structures of conspicuous historical, archaeological, artistic, scientific, social or technical interest, including their fixtures and fittings;
2. Group of buildings: homogeneous groups of urban or rural buildings conspicuous for their historical, archaeological, artistic, scientific, social or technical interest, which are sufficiently coherent to form topographically definable units;
3. Sites: the combined works of man and nature, being areas which are partially built upon and sufficiently distinctive and homogeneous to be topographically definable and are of conspicuous historical, archaeological, artistic, scientific, social or technical interest. (Council of Europe, Convention for the Protection of the Architectural Heritage of Europe, October 3, 1985, Article 1)

artifact Artifacts and useful objects are a part of all recorded history. They are devised, invented, and made as adjuncts to the human being's ability to accomplish work or enjoy pleasure, A close examination of any object is a graphic description or the level of intelligence, manual dexterity, and artistic comprehension of the civilization that produced it. It can reflect, as well, the climate, religious beliefs, form of government, the natural materials at hand, the structure of commerce, and the extent of man's scientific and emotional sophistication. (Latham, R. "The Artifact as Cultural Cipher," in Who Designs America?)

certified rehabilitation For purposes of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, any rehabilitation of a certified historic structure that the Secretary of the Interior has determined is consistent with the historic character of the property and/or district where it may be located. (Murtagh, William J. Keeping Time: The History and Theory of Preservation in America, Pittstown, New Jersey: The Main Street Press, 1988, p. 214)

collection The works of art or artifacts that constitute the holdings of a museum; the gathered works by a single painter, sculptor or even patron; the various holdings of a museum organized by category such as painting, sculpture, works on paper, houses, etc.

compatible use Compatible use means a use which involves no change to the culturally significant fabric, changes which are substantially reversible, or changes which require a minimal impact. (Burra, 1.10)

condition assessment The condition assessment is based on a comprehensive field inspection conducted by a team of professional architects and/or engineers who prepare a report assessing the findings of the inspection and recommending, where necessary, appropriate repair and historic preservation treatments consistent with the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Historic Preservation Projects. A condition assessment report consists of the following information [abbreviated herein]:

* Administrative Data: history, significance, location, size
* Inventory Data: architectural and engineering items,
description of major building elements - significance, condition, priority
* Inspection Data: deficiencies, proposed corrective action, priority
* Management Cost Summary: matrix of costs for all work
* Graphic Data: drawings, photographs, documents

(National Historic Landmark: Building Condition Assessment, Based on report prepared by: Center for Architectural Conservation, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, n.d., prepared for the Preservation Assistance Division, NPS, USDI)

conservation Conservation means all the processes of looking after a place so as to retain its cultural significance. It includes maintenance and may according to circumstance include preservation, restoration, reconstruction and adaptation and will be commonly a combination of more than one of these. (The Australia ICOMOS Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance, "The Burra Charter,: 1979, rev. 1988

Conservation involves the modernization of mechanical and structural elements, including interior alterations necessary to extend the useful life of the building or facility. The architectural character and integrity of the exterior should be retained. With conservation, there is no requirement to expend much effort to achieve strict historical accuracy or to precisely recreate the original construction. ("The Architect as Preservationists," Architect's Handbook of Professional Practice, Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, January, 1971, Chapter 21)

conservationists Conservationists are the specialists (heritage recorders, historians, archaeologists, architects, engineers, landscape architects, conservators, interpreters, planners, and so forth) involved in the conservation process of historic resources. (Blumenson, John and Jill Taylor "Guidelines for the Recording of Heritage Buildings, APT Bulletin Vol. XXII, No. 1/2, 1990, p.110; principles under development by ICOMOS Canada)

Work that is nonrecurring, or at least is intended to last as long as possible and therefore has no predictable cycle, or work that involves specialized craft skills beyond what are considered to be normal maintenance skills. (Battle, David G. "A Maintenance Specifications Database for the National Park Service," Service Life for Rehabilitated Buildings and Other Structures, ASTM, STP 1098, Stephen J. Kelley and Philip C. Marshall, eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, 1990, p.23)

contract administration Review shop drawings, samples, and special work. Prepare certificates of payment and change orders for the client's approval. Upon completion, prepare construction record drawings, preservation maintenance plan, and final report of project for client's records. (A Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, 1992, pamphlet)

construction documents Prepare all construction and other contract documents, including working drawings and specifications that set forth detailed requirements for the construction of the entire project. (A Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, 1992, pamphlet)

construction observation Provide qualified construction observers to review construction including the analysis of building conditions discovered during construction, field testing, and use of proper materials and techniques. Conduct the final inspection and issue certificate of completion. (A Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, 1992, pamphlet)

demolition The premeditated process of completely destroying a building by tearing it down or imploding it. (Murtagh, William J. Keeping Time: The History and Theory of Preservation in America, Pittstown, New Jersey: The Main Street Press, 1988, p. 214)

demolition by neglect The gradual destruction of a building because of lack of maintenance. (Murtagh, William J. Keeping Time: The History and Theory of Preservation in America, Pittstown, New Jersey: The Main Street Press, 1988, p. 214)

The destruction of a building through abandonment or lack of maintenance. (Maddex, Diane, ed. Landmark Yellow Pages, National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: The Preservation Press, 1990.

display An exhibition of artwork of other cultural artifacts typically placed and interpreted within the context of an historic setting rather than in a setting which would be divorced from its surroundings physically, visually and contextually. Often referred to as interpretive display of interpretive exhibit.

documentation Recording existing conditions with photographs and measured drawings. When possible, compare original contract documents with as-built conditions. (A Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, 1992, pamphlet)

The recording of the physical fabric and spatial nature of a place. Recording typically includes preparation of measured drawings, photographs and a written description. Source

Documenting (or documentation) consists of compiling all available past and present records (written, graphic, photographs and the like) about an historic resource. (Blumenson, John and Jill Taylor "Guidelines for the Recording of Heritage Buildings, APT Bulletin Vol. XXII, No. 1/2, 1990, p.111; principles under development by ICOMOS Canada)

element Defined as the basic component or issue on which the program collects information for inventory use. An element may be an architectural feature, structural component, engineering system or a functional requirement.(National Historic Landmark: Building Condition Assessment, Based on report prepared by: Center for Architectural Conservation, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, n.d., prepared for the Preservation Assistance Division, NPS, USDI)

engineer A licensed professional with special qualifications in civil, structural, mechanical, electrical engineering, or an associated field, the engineer is sensitive to the requirements of preservation projects and is a consultant to the architect. (A Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, 1992, pamphlet)

fabric Fabric means all the physical material of the place. (The Australia ICOMOS Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance, "The Burra Charter,: 1979, rev. 1988, Article 1.3)

facadism The retention of only the facade of a historic building during the conversion process, in which the remainder of the structure is severely altered or totally destroyed. (Murtagh, William J. Keeping Time: The History and Theory of Preservation in America, Pittstown, New Jersey: The Main Street Press, 1988, p. 215)

feasibility study Investigate code requirements and regulations, and evaluate technical and economic feasibility of proposed preservation work. (A Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, 1992, pamphlet)

heritage recorder The Heritage Recorder is a technical expert trained to apply special recording techniques (such as hand recording, record photography, rectified photography, stereophotogrammetry, and so on) to undertake Technical Analysis and to produce Heritage Records that meet the needs of the conservation professional for research, analysis, design, and maintenance and archival storage requirements. (Blumenson, John and Jill Taylor "Guidelines for the Recording of Heritage Buildings, APT Bulletin Vol. XXII, No. 1/2, 1990, p.110; principles under development by ICOMOS Canada)

heritage recording Heritage Recording is the activity of producing precise and reliable technical records of historic resources that meet the Historic Resource Conservation Standards. (Blumenson, John and Jill Taylor "Guidelines for the Recording of Heritage Buildings, APT Bulletin Vol. XXII, No. 1/2, 1990, p.110; principles under development by ICOMOS Canada)

historian A specialist with appropriate academic degrees in history, and who may have particular expertise in architectural history or the particular period of the project, the historian serves as a research consultant for the architect. (A Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, 1992, pamphlet)

historic interiors specialist An architect or specially trained professional who is experienced in the investigation, documentation, research, and analysis of the furnishings, lighting, finishes, and decorative arts of building interiors. (Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: American Institute of Architects, Committee on Historic Resources, 1985, pamphlet, rev. 12/89)

historic or preservation architect A registered architect who is primarily concerned with the historic preservation process and who has special training in and knowledge of early building techniques. The historical architect is able to determine the original fabric and later additions of a structure, interpret findings for the client, and coordinate the work of other specialists involved in a historical architecture project. (A Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, 1992, pamphlet)

historical research Study and prepare report of documents, old photographs, and other data concerning the project, its architectural and construction history and people connected with it. (A Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, 1992, pamphlet)

housekeeping Housekeeping is that branch of maintenance which removes undesirable or harmful deposits of soil from the surface of building elements. The goal of historic building housekeeping is to remove soil in a manner which does the least amount of harm to the surfaces treated. Housekeeping is repeated at short time intervals so that soil removal can be accomplished with the gentlest and least radical means. (Chambers, J. Henry. Cyclical Maintenance for Historic Buildings, Washington, DC: Interagency Historic Architectural Services Program, Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation, NPS, USDI, 1976)

infill Descriptive of buildings that have been designed and built to replace missing structures or otherwise fill gaps in the streetscape. Infilling can mean replacing a rowhouse destroyed by fire, for example. (Murtagh, William J. Keeping Time: The History and Theory of Preservation in America, Pittstown, New Jersey: The Main Street Press, 1988, p. 215)

interpretive exhibit Interpretation The educational methods by which the history and meaning of historic sites, buildings, objects, districts, and structures are explained by use of docents, leaflets, tape recordings, signs, film, and other means. (Murtagh, William J. Keeping Time: The History and Theory of Preservation in America, Pittstown, New Jersey: The Main Street Press, 1988, p. 215)

intervention The actions taken by governmental agencies (or other organizations) on behalf of endangered structures, improperly managed or planned restoration efforts, and other instances where it is necessary for the intercession of officials to protect these sites and structures as a matter of policy or as dictated by law.

Physical intervention refers to any the process of undertaking any work on a property which effects the its existing physical fabric, structure or systems. Such actions may range from careful monitoring of existing conditions, to maintenance and repair, to replacement of an element, material, structure or system. These actions imply that physical work is undertaken to correct the underlying causes of deterioration. It may also refer to on or several distinct past actions upon the fabric.

investigation Architectural and engineering investigation: use archaeological and historical data and a detailed physical analysis of the basic elements or "fabric" of the building (which may require removal of surface or decorative material) to determine what is original and what is not, together with sequence and dates of construction. This is required for the basic historic structures document.

landscape architect A specially trained professional who is experienced in the design of land forms and gardens, who understands modern and historic plant materials and landscape construction techniques, and who assists the architect with preservation of the project environment and site. (Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: American Institute of Architects, Committee on Historic Resources, 1985, pamphlet, rev. 12/89)

maintenance Maintenance means the continuous protective care of the fabric, contents and setting of a place, and is to be distinguished from repair. Repair involves restoration or reconstruction and it should be treated accordingly. (The Australia ICOMOS Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance, "The Burra Charter,: 1979, rev. 1988, Article 1.5)

The act or process of applying a preservation treatment to a cultural resource. It includes housekeeping and routine and cyclic work schedule to mitigate wear and deterioration without altering the appearance of the resource; repair or replacement-in-kind of broken or worn-out elements, parts, or surfaces, so as to keep the existing appearance and function of a structure; Work to moderate, prevent, or arrest erosion of archeological sites; Emergency stabilization work necessary to protect damaged historic fabric from additional damage; and actions taken to prevent damage and to minimize deterioration of a museum object by practicing preventive conservation or by performing suitable treatment on an object itself. (Cultural Resources Management, NPS-28, August 1985)

Maintenance is the almost constant application of preservation treatments to reduce wear and deterioration and prolong the life of a building (Simonson, Kaye Ellen. Maintaining Historic Buildings: An Annotated Bibliography, Washington, DC: Preservation Assistance Division, NPS, USDI, 1990, p.1)

Measures of a predictably recurring nature including housekeeping, groundskeeping, service, and janitorial activities; routine and cyclic work intended to mitigate wear and deterioration without altering the appearance of the structure; and repair (including replacement-in-kind) of broken or worn-out elements or surfaces so as to keep the existing appearance and function of a structure. Usually involves nonspecialized skills. (Battle, David G. "A Maintenance Specifications Database for the National Park Service," Service Life for Rehabilitated Buildings and Other Structures, ASTM, STP 1098, Stephen J. Kelley and Philip C. Marshall, eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, 1990, p.23)

A preventive maintenance program seeks to arrest the accelerated or premature weathering, wear, or failure of building elements, materials, systems and assemblies.

cyclic Maintaining activities that tend to occur on a predictable cycle. Although this cycle may extend over a number of years, it also includes activities recurring on a seasonal or annual basis, such as fertilizing the lawns, servicing the furnace, or installing screen or storm windows. (Battle, David G. "A Maintenance Specifications Database for the National Park Service," Service Life for Rehabilitated Buildings and Other Structures, ASTM, STP 1098, Stephen J. Kelley and Philip C. Marshall, eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, 1990, p.23)

routine Maintenance activities that tend to occur on a daily, weekly, or monthly schedule, or some variation thereon, even though they may vary seasonally. (Battle, David G. "A Maintenance Specifications Database for the National Park Service," Service Life for Rehabilitated Buildings and Other Structures, ASTM, STP 1098, Stephen J. Kelley and Philip C. Marshall, eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, 1990, p.23)

monument Monuments: all buildings and structures of conspicuous historical, archaeological, artistic, scientific, social or technical interest, including their fixtures and fittings. (Council of Europe, Convention for the Protection of the Architectural Heritage of Europe, October 3, 1985, Article 1, section 1)

mothball To temporarily protect an unused and vacant building from the destructive elements of nature and human actions until the structure can be preserved at a later time. Protective measures include securing the exterior envelope (roof, windows, doors) while providing adequate ventilation, deactivating the systems and utilities (except as required), and maintaining a security system and/or fencing.

museum:

living history farm A relatively recent interpretive approach at a historic site in which historical events and techniques are acted out, emphasizing the participation of visitors. (Murtagh, William J. Keeping Time: The History and Theory of Preservation in America, Pittstown, New Jersey: The Main Street Press, 1988, p. 215)

historic house A public or private educational institution, usually nonprofit, whose structure is itself of historical or architectural importance and whose interpretation related primarily to the building's architecture, furnishings, and history. (Murtagh, William J. Keeping Time: The History and Theory of Preservation in America, Pittstown, New Jersey: The Main Street Press, 1988, p. 215)

This has been the basic module of historic preservation, acting as a nursery for the entire movement...Generally, they are detached, single-family houses; and generally, they have been preserved because of some family association with famous personages or historical events. Less commonly, they have been preserved for their sheer artistic or historic merit.. Mount Vernon and Monticello are prototypical examples... The main deficiency, in the light of contemporary knowledge and cultural attitudes, is the elitist, upper-class bias of their interpretation, educational programs, and publications. (Fitch, James Marston.Historic Preservation: Curatorial Management of the Built World, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1982, p.43)

open air English term for outdoor architectural museum, derived from the French: plein air.

outdoor A restored, re-created or replicated village site in which several or many structures have been restored, rebuilt, or moved and whose purpose is to interpret a historical or cultural setting, period, or activity. (Murtagh, William J. Keeping Time: The History and Theory of Preservation in America, Pittstown, New Jersey: The Main Street Press, 1988, p. 216)

The concept of exhibiting whole buildings in the open air (plein air in French, Freiluft in German) is analogous to the display of small artifacts in the controlled environment of the museum.... Of course, a critical difference between works of art and works of architecture is that the latter are containers of human life and social process.... Three prototypical examples of this type are Henry Ford's Greenfield Village in Dearborn; Electra Webb's Shelburne Village near Burlington, Vermont; and Old Sturbridge Village in Massachusetts, the creation of two wealthy collectors, Albert and Cheney Wells. These institutions tend to be idiosyncratic both in their collections and in the way in which these collections are organized and interpreted. They have all been institutionalized in recent years, with professional staffs which are reorganizing both plant and program along modern museological lines. (Fitch, James Marston.Historic Preservation: Curatorial Management of the Built World, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1982, p.42)

outline specifications Prepare written outline of specifications for the work, including materials, workmanship, and the methods and techniques required. (A Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, 1992, pamphlet)

original Original fabric refers to historic material within a structure which can be attributed to the date of a structure's initial construction or within a specific period defined in the context of a specific structure's evolution.

preliminary design Prepare drawings and other documents illustrating proposed development, materials, engineering concepts, alternatives, and other elements of the preservation work. (A Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, 1992, pamphlet)

preliminary report Compile all written data; drawings, photographs, and other information into what is commonly called a "Historic Structures Report" or "HSR." This may include assisting in preparing applications for inclusion in local, state, and federal inventories, including the National Register of Historic Places, or for federal/state funding through the state historic preservation officers. (A Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, 1992, pamphlet)

physical condition The state of performance, utility, repair and adherence to the original state of a material, element, assemblage, or system within a historic structure. Refer to condition assessment.

place Place means site, area, building or other work, group of buildings, or other works together with associated contents or surroundings (The Australia ICOMOS Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance, "The Burra Charter,: 1979, rev. 1988, Article 1.1)

preservation Preservation means maintaining the fabric of a place in its existing state and retarding deterioration (The Australia ICOMOS Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance, "The Burra Charter,: 1979, rev. 1988, Article 1.6)

Measures to sustain the existing form, integrity, and material of a structure or the existing form and vegetative cover of a site. It is more substantive work than maintenance and usually requires specialized skills.

Defined as the act or process of applying measures to sustain the existing form, integrity, and material of a building or structure. (National Historic Landmark: Building Condition Assessment, Based on report prepared by: Center for Architectural Conservation, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, n.d., prepared for the Preservation Assistance Division, NPS, USDI)

Preservation means stabilizing a structure in its existing form by preventing further change or deterioration. Preservation, since it takes the structure as found does not relate to a specific period in time and is, architecturally, the most intellectually honest treatment of an ancient monument. (Bullock, Orin M. Jr., FAIA. The Restoration Manual, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1983, p.1. First published in 1966.)

programming Determine and state the intended function and contemporary use of the building, structure, or site. (A Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, 1992, pamphlet)

Programing is broadly defined as the process of preparing a plan, or developing a system, for actions to be taken towards achieving a goal. Programing can also include defining and setting the goals. In programing for preservation of a historic structure- whether the project involves restoration, rehabilitation of adaptive use, or a combination thereof- many factors must be considered. (McCarthy, Thomas H. "Programing for Preservation," APT Bulletin, Vol. XIV, No.4, 1982, p.47.)

protection Protection generally involves the least degree of intervention and is prepatory to other work. For example, protection includes the maintenance of historic material through treatments such as rust removal, caulking, limited paint removal, and re-application of protective coatings; the cyclic cleaning of roof gutter systems; or installation of fencing, protective plywood, alarm systems and other temporary protective measures. (The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation and Guidelines for Rehabilitating Buildings, Preservation Assistance Division, NPS, USDI, 1990, p.9)

Measures used to protect the resource from damage, loss, or attack. When associated with stabilization, preservation, and sometimes maintenance activities, also includes temporary measures to protect the structure, other resources, workers, and the public from damage or injury. (Battle, David G. "A Maintenance Specifications Database for the National Park Service," Service Life for Rehabilitated Buildings and Other Structures, ASTM, STP 1098, Stephen J. Kelley and Philip C. Marshall, eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, 1990, p.23)

reconstruction Reconstruction means returning a place as nearly as possible to a known earlier state and is distinguished by the introduction of materials (new or old) into the fabric. This is not to be confused with either re-creation or conjectural reconstruction which are outside the scope of this Charter. (The Australia ICOMOS Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance, "The Burra Charter,: 1979, rev. 1988, Article 1.8)

Reconstruction involves utilizing documentary evidence to design and construct a replica of an earlier building of facility which no longer exists. This may also be done on the original site or elsewhere. ("The Architect as Preservationists," Architect's Handbook of Professional Practice, Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, January, 1971, Chapter 21)

Reconstruction means the re-creation of a building from historical, archaeological, and architectural documents and other evidence, often highly conjectural. Parts of buildings which are "restored" often must be reconstructed because original work has been removed or changed; this detracts somewhat from the accuracy and possibly from the intellectual honesty of the restoration. (Bullock, Orin M. Jr., FAIA. The Restoration Manual, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1983, p.1. First published in 1966.)

recreate To recreate is to approximate. An interior is recreated in much the same way that a history book is written. Both are based upon historical investigation, analysis and synthesis. Yet research for recreating an interior setting is likely to involve even more of a mixture of types of facts than is brought to bear in restoration, or, for that matter, than is admissible to most orthodox historical research. (Seale, William. Recreating the Historic House Interior, Nashville, Tennessee: American Association for State and Local History, 1979, p.ix.)

rehabilitation Rehabilitation or renovation involves altering or upgrading existing buildings and structures. Rehabilitation extends the useful life or utility of the building through repairs or alterations, which are sometimes major. Where possible, the features of the building that contributed to its architectural, cultural, or historical character are preserved. (A Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, 1992, pamphlet)

the process of returning a property to a state of utility, through repair or alteration, which makes possible an efficient contemporary use while preserving portions and features of the property which are significant to its historic, architectural, and cultural values. (The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation and Guidelines for Rehabilitating Buildings, Preservation Assistance Division, NPS, USDI, 1990, p.5)

Rehabilitation involves equipping the building or facility for an extended useful life with a minimum alteration of original construction. Whether or not this will require strict historical accuracy will depend on the particular Project. ("The Architect as Preservationists," Architect's Handbook of Professional Practice, Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, January, 1971, Chapter 21)

Rehabilitation or renovation concerns altering or upgrading existing buildings and structures. Rehabilitation extends the useful life or utility of the building through repairs or alterations, which are sometimes major. Where, possible, the features of the building that contributed to its architectural, cultural, or historical character are preserved. (Guide to Historic Preservation, Washington, DC: American Institute of Architects, Committee on Historic Resources, 1985, pamphlet)

relocation The process of moving households or businesses to a new location, usually because of urban renewal or similar government actions. Displacement. (Murtagh, William J. Keeping Time: The History and Theory of Preservation in America, Pittstown, New Jersey: The Main Street Press, 1988, p. 217)

Placement of all or part of a structure at a location where it did not previously exist. (Battle, David G. "A Maintenance Specifications Database for the National Park Service," Service Life for Rehabilitated Buildings and Other Structures, ASTM, STP 1098, Stephen J. Kelley and Philip C. Marshall, eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, 1990, p.234)

renovation Questionable modernization of a historic building in which inappropriate alterations are made and important features and details eliminated. (Murtagh, William J. Keeping Time: The History and Theory of Preservation in America, Pittstown, New Jersey: The Main Street Press, 1988, p. 217)

repair Guidance for the repair of historic materials such as masonry, wood, and architectural metals again begins with the least degree of intervention possible such as patching, piecing-in, splicing, consolidating, or otherwise reinforcing or upgrading them according to recognized preservation methods. Repairing also includes the limited replacement in kind - or with compatible substitute material - of extensively deteriorated or missing parts of features when there are surviving prototype (for example, brackets, dentils, steps, plaster, or portions of slate or tile roofing). Although using the same kind of material is always the preferred option, substitute material is acceptable if the form and design as well as the substitute material itself convey the visual appearance of the remaining parts of the feature and finish. (The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation and Guidelines for Rehabilitating Buildings, Preservation Assistance Division, NPS, USDI, 1990, p.9)

replace (replication) Following repair in the hierarchy, guidance is provided for replacing an entire character-defining feature with new materials because the level of deterioration or damage of materials precludes re.....

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