Risk Management > Building Systems > Openings

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> OpeningsArchitectural Fragments

Stained glass skylight over stair, The Breakers.
• Employ specialists to work on stained glass, with conservation undertaken in concert with surrounded elements.

French windows, west elevation, The Elms.
• Assess the risks of opening the wondows (and allowing air, moisture, salts, pollutants and light to enter) and balance agains the rewards of interpreting the houses with operating windows.
Historic photograph (Collection number unknown), The Elms.
• Combine site assessment of windows with research of historic images to chronicle the evolution of openings as the basis for the Record of Decision for specific treatment recommendations.
Open window, with wind upturning carpets, moving other fabrics, bedroom, second floor, Kingscote.
• Some interiors may be more vulnerable than others to the introduction of wind, light, and pollutants.
Windows, dining room, Kingscote: interior (above); deteriorated storm windlow (below).
• A detailed assessment of openings shoudl serve as the basis for pritorizing preservation work. Here, the Tiffany glass employed by Stamford White is at risk due to deterioration of the exterior wood storm window.
West window, lower sash, first landing, stair, Château sur Mer.
• Conduct a specialised survey of all stained and decorative glass to identify, when possible, the designer and artisan.
Gas lighting above stained glass, "Great Hall," Château sur Mer.
• Consider employing color-corrected artificial illumination behind select glass to approximate the historic lighting conditions — here, originally employing gas.
North window, northeast parlor, first floor, Hunter House.
• Lack of weatherstripping, loose construction, and deterioration and contributing to fluctuating environmental consitions and the entry of pollutants into vulnerable interior spaces.

Failed weatherstripping, west elevation, first floor, Château sur Mer.
• Employ and carefully install the best grade of weatherstripping for all openings.

West window, second floor, The Elms.
• Coordinate all openings work with relate work on wood, matals, masonry and other materials.
Window weatherstripping, south elevation, first floor, Château sur Mer.
• Coordinate openings assessment with both interior and exterior work —  and security systems.
Above: Casement windows, closed, first floor, Kingscote. Below: Casement windows, closed, second floor, Kingscote.
Water stains below window, east elevation, apartment, third floor, The Breakers.
• Make certain that all windows are closed at the end of each day and durign inclement weather.
Second floor, The Elms.
Open window during exterior work, second floor, The Breakers.
• Do not allow windows to be open when construction work is being conducted nearby.
"Tile room", basement, Château-sur-Mer.
• The term "opening" is referred to instead of windows or doors as some openings have changed through time to serve multiple purposed as both windows and doors.
Above: Recreated, glazed grill, from basement, west elevation, The Elms. Below: Architectural fragment of original work.
• Retain samples of historic components of window elements and catalogue as an architectural fragment.
Chimney, southeast corner, roof, The Breakers.
• Include chimneys and other projections in the Openings category.


Document existing windows, doors, skylights and other openings; note their location on floor plans and elevations.

Photograph typical openings from the exterior and interior.

Intentify all window types in each building.

Develop detailed measured drawings (plan, section, elevation) of typical openings.

Develop architectural schedules for windows, doors and other openings. Include information as part of CAD drawings and as part of a database.

Analyze typical windows to assess preservation and energy conservation issues and to interpret design, construction and use.

Record all removable strom windows adn screens as architectural fragments; record location in storage and on the building.

Conduct historical research, image analysis and comparison to determine the evolution of opening and their windows and doors.

Employ drawings and typical details to assess all openings and to develop treatment recommendations.

Conduct finishes analysis on all painted and decorated surfaces.

Document the date that UV glazing was installed; record the light levels for all openings; monitor areas around specific openings.

Test any potentially hazardous materials, including glazing.

Determine air movement from openings due to infiltration and exfiltration. Conduct an assessment employing infra-red thermography. Coordinate with energy conservation assessment of each building.

Evaluate strategies and recommendations by treating representative windows. Evaluate strategies. Develop specifications for all openings.

Determine which opeinings can and can not be operated, and by whom.

In concert with in-house work, conduct window conservationworkshops for the greater community.

Publish Technical Notes on conservation, for posting on the Web site.

Assess exfiltration and infiltration of openings.


Canadian Building Digest, National Research Council Canada

Sasaki, J. R. and A. G. Wilson. Window Air Leakage, CBD-25, 1962.






   © 2002-03 Philip C. Marshall and Preservation Society of Newport County