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Directions for House and Ship Painting (1812)
Reynolds, H. Directions for House and Ship Painting Shewing in a plain and concise manner, the Best Method of Preparing, Mixing and Laying the Various Colors Now in Use, Designed for the Use of Learners. New Haven: Eli Hudson, 1812, 21 pp.
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District of Connecticut, to wit:
Be it remembered, That on the eigth day of May in the thirty-sixth year of the Independence of the United States of America, Hezekiah Reynolds of the said District hath deposited in this office the title of a Book, the right thereof he claims as Author, in the words following to wit: "Directions for House and Ship Painting, shewing in a plain and concise manner the best method of preparing, mixing, and laying the various colours now in use---Designed for the use of Learners---By H. Reynolds.  In conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United States, entitled "An Act for the encouragement of Learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts and Books, to the Authors and Proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned."
HENRY W. EDWARDS, Clerk of the District of Connecticut. A true Copy of Record examined and sealed by me,
H. W. EDWARDS, Clerk of the District of Connecticut.

   THE subscriber having applied more than thirty years of his life, to the business of House and Ship painting, with the general approbation of his employers; is induced to believe that the fruits of his observation, and experience in that Art, may be useful to others---These, together with such information form other persons of long and extensive experience, as he believes to be correct and useful; are comprised of the following pages---As these directions are designed principally for the use of those who have not been regularly instructed in the Art of painting; they are given in such terms as may be plain and intelligible, without regard to technical correctness.---To the Cabinet and Chair Maker, the Wheelwright, the House and Ship Joiner; and to others whose Trades are connected with building; as well as to those whose taste and genius quality for, and invite to the practice of this useful and ornamental Art; it is belived these directions will be important as a substitute for experience---Should this expectation be realized, his object in laying them before the public will be attained.
May 5, 1812.

To prepare OILS for outside work.
   USE only brass or copper vessels---place red lead in the proportion of one pound to four gallons of oil, at the bottom of the vessel---add the oil; then let them simmer or boil very gently over a slow fire, until clarified.  When the red froth ceases to rise on the top, the oil is clarified and fit for use.

To prepare PAINTS for outside work.
   Take a smooth iron kettle of middling size, and an iron ball weighing from 12 to 24 pounds; amd suspend them in some convenient place, by a rope or chain; put into the kettle from 4 to 6 pounds of paint dry, amd grind it until thoroughly pulverized---This may be known, when by feeling you perceive no coarse particles---After a sufficient quantity of paint is ground dry, as before directed; then put in the same kettle six or eight pounds of the dry paint at each time; and add oil until the ball will move easy and free ---add also the materials necessary to produce the color which you propose to paint, according to the directions which follow; mix them thoroughly with the ball, and place the paint in siutable vessles for use. The proper consistence of the paint for use, may be best determined by experiment, on a smooth board, with your brush; taking care that it should not be so thick as to adhere to, or clog the brush; nor so thin as to run upon the board after laid.
   New brushes may be used for priming, or the first coats; but for finishing, use only brushes about half worn.
   It is important that the hand of the painter, and the handle of the brush be kept clean, and free from oil and paint; and that the brush be held while painting, firm by the handle---and that the building be prepared by filling the cracks and fractures with putty; and sweeping off the dust, spiderwebs, &c.  In all cases, but especially in finishing; the paint should be laid straight and true, correspondong with the grain of the wood.

Directions for mixing and painting the following colors, for outside work, viz.

   For the first coat, use two thirds Spanish White; and one third lead; ground and mixed in the kettle as before directed.  When this is thoroughly dry; for the second coat use equal quantities of Spanish white and white lead; and for the last coat, white lead only.

   Add to white as above directed; int he proportion of one to thirty pounds Spruce Yellow, or English Ochre, well ground.  The yellow tinge may be varied at pleasure, by increasing or diminishing the proportion of Spruce Yellow or Ochre.

   Lay on the two first coats white; or slightly tinged with yellow; and for the last coat; to every ten pounds of white lead, add one pound of Spruce Yellow, or English Ochre wel ground and mixed.

   Add to straw color, one pound of Red lead to every ten pounds of the above mixture.

   In the first coat, use the first coat for a white color, tinged with Lampblack; and for the two last coats, add Verdigris in proportion of one pound to every ten pounds of white Lead.

  Prime with white, tinged with lamp-black as above directed; and for the two last coats, use 5 pounds white Lead, one pound of Verdigris, and four ounces Spruce Yellow, or in that proportion.

   Prime as above, and for the last two coats, use equal quantities of Verdigris, and white Lead.  Add to the three last mentioned colors, Spirits of Turpentine in the proportion of half a pint to each gallon of paint.

   For first and second coats, use two pounds of red Lead and ten pounds of Spanish Brown, well ground and mixed---for the last coat four pounds of red Lead and eight pounds of Spanish Brown; or which gives a richer and more durable color; finish with Venetian red only.

   To equal amounts of white Lead and Spanish White; add Lampblack in the proportion of one common sized paper to each twenty pounds of the above mixture---the shade may be varied at the discretion of the painter.

   To every ten pounds of Spanish White, add ten papers of Lampblack; or which is preferable for beauty and duration, use Lampblack only well mixed with oil. For painting Sashes, Oil and white Lead only should be used. Doors may be painted according to the foregoing directions.  Should other colors be prepared, the directions for inside work may be followed.

Directions for painting inside work.

   Use a brass or copper kettle---cover the bottom of the vessel with red lead, laid smooth and even; in the proportion of half a pound to each gallon of oil; boil the same over a small fire, until the oil will singe a feather; then let it cool, and add one grill of Copal Varnish, or Spirits of Turpentine to each gallon of oil.
   Paints must be ground dry, and perfectly pulverized, in the manner before directed; or which is preferable for small quantities, with a marble and muller. When thoroughly pulverized, mix the white Lead with oil and grind them separately from the coloring ingredients.
   In the like manner mix the articles which you propose to use for making the color a prussian blue, stone yellow, venetian red, &c. after pulverized, with your boiled or clarified oil, and grind them in oil separately from the white lead.  After the materials are thus thoroughly ground in oil, separately; mix them together, according to the following directions; and grind them together; giving them a consistence to work free as before directed and they are fit for use.
   The quantities hereinafter stated, are to be understood, after the several paints have been mixed with, and ground in oil.
   Prepare the room for painting, by filling the cracks and nail holes; and covering the nail heads with putty, that the surface may be smooth and even.
   For sizing---dissolve one pound of Glue in one gallon of boiling water; add two pounds of Spanish White; and when cold, and well mixed; lay it on carefully; and even with the grain of the wood, wioth a clean brush.

Directions for mixing and painting the following Colors for Inside work, viz.

   To one pint of white Lead add one teaspoonfull of Prussian blue; ad one teaspoonfull of Spruce Yellow, or in that proportion.

   To one pint of white Lead, add one teaspoonfull Rosin; one teaspoonfull Verdigris; and half a teaspoonfull of Lampblack.

   To one pint of white Lead, add two teaspoonfulls of Prussian blue; four do. Of Spruce Yellow; one do. Of Umbre.

   To one pint of white Lead, add one tablespoonfull of Verdigris; one do. Of Spruce Yellow.  Mix and grind them well together; and if upon experiment it should be too light, add of the colouring ingredients at discretion.

   To five pounds of white Lead, add one ounce of Prussian blue "best quality;" if the quality be inferior the quantity must bne increased.  In laying this paint, use a half worn brush; and press the brush harder than in laying other colors.

A NAVY BLUE may be made by adding 2 oz. Of Prussian Blue; and a Sky Blue by adding half an ounce of Prussian Blue to five pounds of white Lead.

   To six pounds white Lead, add eight ounces yellow ochre; and half a gill of Lampblack.

   May be made with either, 1. Vermillion; 2. Red Lead; 3. Rose Pink; 4. Dutch Pink, ground in oil.  Venetian red, Spanish brown and red ochre are coarser paints.

    Is amde with Rose pink, anmd Prussian blue, in equal quantities.

    Is made with white Lead 3 parts; and Spanish brown 1 part; well mixed and tinged with a small quantity of Lampblack.

   Is made with Spanish brown and Lampblack, and may be varied at discretion.

   Prime with Spruce Yellow; when thoroughly dry, add to the yellow a smal quantity of white Lead, say four ounces lead to one pound yellow, and lay the second coat.  For the third coat, take a sufficient quantity of Stone Yellow pulverized: heat it on coals in iron; taking care to stir it constantly untill it changes to a red color; then let it cool; mix and grind it with clarified or boil'd oil; and it will be fit for use.  Then for shading the work, take umbre pulverized, and prepare it by heating as before untill it changes to a darker color; then mix and grind it in oil.  When both are prepared lay the third coat; and immediately shade it with umbre, that the colors may more easily blend together.
   For shading use a graining or flat brush, and lay the paint in imitation of Mahogany wood, of which have a sample handsomely polished before you.  When thoroughly dry, finish with a coat of Copal Varnish neatly laid with a clean brush.

   Prime with red Lead, and white Lead, equal quantities.  For the second coat, use the same.  For the third coat; to four pounds white Lead, add two ounces Vermillion well ground and mixed, and immediately while the third coat is green, shade with India red in imitation of the grains and knots of cedar. For shading, the India red should be well ground and mixed; and placed on a pallet or pane of glass, that it may take easily with the brush.

   First and second coats may be laid with white Lead and Spanish white in equal quantities; for the third coat use white Lead only.  Shade with Prussina blue, ground and mixed with oil, and laid on with a graining brush while the third coat is green; in imitation of clouded marble.  Finish with Copal Varnish.

   For the three first coats, use white and yellow Ochre in equal quantities. While the third coat is green, shade with umbre prepared as before directed, and finish with Varnish.  Any other imitations of clouded or shaded work may be done in a similar manner by varying the foregoing directions according to the judgement and taste of the painter.

Floor Carpets or Oil'd Cloth are made as follws, viz.

   Canvas or common tow cloth is sewed with a flat seam, of the dimensions required; and nailed firm upon the florr; then wet with water, even and thoroughly; and before dry, is primedwith any common color.  When this coat is dry, a second coat is laid wiht the same---The third coat is painted with a stone color; and when dry, the carpet is turned and painted with any convenient color on the other side---When dry, the carpet is turned black, and any flaws or cracks which appear are filled with putty, and the surface is made smooth and even.
   With a chalk line in a Margin six to eight inches wide is struck; and the remaining part is divided into squares or diamonds of which one half taking then as placed in a diagonal line succeeding each other, are painted white; and the other half black. The squares may be clouded at pleasure. The margin may be ornamented or clouded; and with little labor by using paper patterns.

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