District of Connecticut, to wit:
Be it remembered, That on the eigth day of May in the thirty-sixth
year of the Independence of the United States of America, Hezekiah
Reynolds of the said District hath deposited in this office
the title of a Book, the right thereof he claims as Author,
in the words following to wit: "Directions for House and
Ship Painting, shewing in a plain and concise manner the best
method of preparing, mixing, and laying the various colours
now in use---Designed for the use of Learners---By H. Reynolds.
In conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United States,
entitled "An Act for the encouragement of Learning, by
securing the copies of Maps, Charts and Books, to the Authors
and Proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned."
HENRY W. EDWARDS, Clerk of the District of Connecticut.
A true Copy of Record examined and sealed by me,
H. W. EDWARDS, Clerk of the District of Connecticut.
THE subscriber having applied more
than thirty years of his life, to the business of House and
Ship painting, with the general approbation of his employers;
is induced to believe that the fruits of his observation, and
experience in that Art, may be useful to others---These, together
with such information form other persons of long and extensive
experience, as he believes to be correct and useful; are comprised
of the following pages---As these directions are designed principally
for the use of those who have not been regularly instructed
in the Art of painting; they are given in such terms as may
be plain and intelligible, without regard to technical correctness.---To
the Cabinet and Chair Maker, the Wheelwright, the House and
Ship Joiner; and to others whose Trades are connected with building;
as well as to those whose taste and genius quality for, and
invite to the practice of this useful and ornamental Art; it
is belived these directions will be important as a substitute
for experience---Should this expectation be realized, his object
in laying them before the public will be attained.
May 5, 1812.
To prepare OILS for outside work.
USE only brass or copper vessels---place
red lead in the proportion of one pound to four gallons of oil,
at the bottom of the vessel---add the oil; then let them simmer
or boil very gently over a slow fire, until clarified.
When the red froth ceases to rise on the top, the oil is clarified
and fit for use.
To prepare PAINTS for outside work.
Take a smooth iron kettle of middling size,
and an iron ball weighing from 12 to 24 pounds; amd suspend
them in some convenient place, by a rope or chain; put into
the kettle from 4 to 6 pounds of paint dry, amd grind it until
thoroughly pulverized---This may be known, when by feeling you
perceive no coarse particles---After a sufficient quantity of
paint is ground dry, as before directed; then put in the same
kettle six or eight pounds of the dry paint at each time; and
add oil until the ball will move easy and free ---add also the
materials necessary to produce the color which you propose to
paint, according to the directions which follow; mix them thoroughly
with the ball, and place the paint in siutable vessles for use.
The proper consistence of the paint for use, may be best determined
by experiment, on a smooth board, with your brush; taking care
that it should not be so thick as to adhere to, or clog the
brush; nor so thin as to run upon the board after laid.
New brushes may be used for priming, or the first
coats; but for finishing, use only brushes about half worn.
It is important that the hand of the painter,
and the handle of the brush be kept clean, and free from oil
and paint; and that the brush be held while painting, firm by
the handle---and that the building be prepared by filling the
cracks and fractures with putty; and sweeping off the dust,
spiderwebs, &c. In all cases, but especially in finishing;
the paint should be laid straight and true, correspondong with
the grain of the wood.
Directions for mixing and painting the following colors,
for outside work, viz.
For the first coat, use two thirds Spanish White;
and one third lead; ground and mixed in the kettle as before
directed. When this is thoroughly dry; for the second
coat use equal quantities of Spanish white and white lead; and
for the last coat, white lead only.
Add to white as above directed; int he proportion
of one to thirty pounds Spruce Yellow, or English Ochre, well
ground. The yellow tinge may be varied at pleasure, by
increasing or diminishing the proportion of Spruce Yellow or
Lay on the two first coats white; or slightly tinged
with yellow; and for the last coat; to every ten pounds of white
lead, add one pound of Spruce Yellow, or English Ochre wel ground
Add to straw color, one pound of Red lead to every
ten pounds of the above mixture.
In the first coat, use the first coat for a white
color, tinged with Lampblack; and for the two last coats, add
Verdigris in proportion of one pound to every ten pounds of
Prime with white, tinged with lamp-black as above
directed; and for the two last coats, use 5 pounds white Lead,
one pound of Verdigris, and four ounces Spruce Yellow, or in
Prime as above, and for the last two coats, use
equal quantities of Verdigris, and white Lead. Add to
the three last mentioned colors, Spirits of Turpentine in the
proportion of half a pint to each gallon of paint.
For first and second coats, use two pounds of red
Lead and ten pounds of Spanish Brown, well ground and mixed---for
the last coat four pounds of red Lead and eight pounds of Spanish
Brown; or which gives a richer and more durable color; finish
with Venetian red only.
To equal amounts of white Lead and Spanish White;
add Lampblack in the proportion of one common sized paper to
each twenty pounds of the above mixture---the shade may be varied
at the discretion of the painter.
To every ten pounds of Spanish White, add ten papers
of Lampblack; or which is preferable for beauty and duration,
use Lampblack only well mixed with oil. For painting Sashes,
Oil and white Lead only should be used. Doors may be painted
according to the foregoing directions. Should other colors
be prepared, the directions for inside work may be followed.
Directions for painting inside work.
PREPARATION OF OIL
Use a brass or copper kettle---cover the bottom
of the vessel with red lead, laid smooth and even; in the proportion
of half a pound to each gallon of oil; boil the same over a
small fire, until the oil will singe a feather; then let it
cool, and add one grill of Copal Varnish, or Spirits of Turpentine
to each gallon of oil.
Paints must be ground dry, and perfectly pulverized,
in the manner before directed; or which is preferable for small
quantities, with a marble and muller. When thoroughly pulverized,
mix the white Lead with oil and grind them separately from the
In the like manner mix the articles which you propose
to use for making the color a prussian blue, stone yellow, venetian
red, &c. after pulverized, with your boiled or clarified
oil, and grind them in oil separately from the white lead.
After the materials are thus thoroughly ground in oil, separately;
mix them together, according to the following directions; and
grind them together; giving them a consistence to work free
as before directed and they are fit for use.
The quantities hereinafter stated, are to be understood,
after the several paints have been mixed with, and ground in
Prepare the room for painting, by filling the cracks
and nail holes; and covering the nail heads with putty, that
the surface may be smooth and even.
For sizing---dissolve one pound of Glue in one
gallon of boiling water; add two pounds of Spanish White; and
when cold, and well mixed; lay it on carefully; and even with
the grain of the wood, wioth a clean brush.
Directions for mixing and painting the following Colors
for Inside work, viz.
To one pint of white Lead add one teaspoonfull
of Prussian blue; ad one teaspoonfull of Spruce Yellow, or in
To one pint of white Lead, add one teaspoonfull
Rosin; one teaspoonfull Verdigris; and half a teaspoonfull of
LIGHT STONE COLOR
To one pint of white Lead, add two teaspoonfulls
of Prussian blue; four do. Of Spruce Yellow; one do. Of Umbre.
To one pint of white Lead, add one tablespoonfull
of Verdigris; one do. Of Spruce Yellow. Mix and grind
them well together; and if upon experiment it should be too
light, add of the colouring ingredients at discretion.
PRUSSIAN BLUE COLOR
To five pounds of white Lead, add one ounce of
Prussian blue "best quality;" if the quality be inferior
the quantity must bne increased. In laying this paint,
use a half worn brush; and press the brush harder than in laying
A NAVY BLUE may be made by adding 2 oz. Of Prussian Blue; and
a Sky Blue by adding half an ounce of Prussian Blue to five
pounds of white Lead.
DARK STONE COLOR
To six pounds white Lead, add eight ounces
yellow ochre; and half a gill of Lampblack.
May be made with either, 1. Vermillion; 2. Red
Lead; 3. Rose Pink; 4. Dutch Pink, ground in oil. Venetian
red, Spanish brown and red ochre are coarser paints.
Is amde with Rose pink, anmd Prussian blue,
in equal quantities.
Is made with white Lead 3 parts; and Spanish
brown 1 part; well mixed and tinged with a small quantity of
Is made with Spanish brown and Lampblack, and may
be varied at discretion.
Prime with Spruce Yellow; when thoroughly dry,
add to the yellow a smal quantity of white Lead, say four ounces
lead to one pound yellow, and lay the second coat. For
the third coat, take a sufficient quantity of Stone Yellow pulverized:
heat it on coals in iron; taking care to stir it constantly
untill it changes to a red color; then let it cool; mix and
grind it with clarified or boil'd oil; and it will be fit for
use. Then for shading the work, take umbre pulverized,
and prepare it by heating as before untill it changes to a darker
color; then mix and grind it in oil. When both are prepared
lay the third coat; and immediately shade it with umbre, that
the colors may more easily blend together.
For shading use a graining or flat brush, and lay
the paint in imitation of Mahogany wood, of which have a sample
handsomely polished before you. When thoroughly dry, finish
with a coat of Copal Varnish neatly laid with a clean brush.
RED CEDAR COLOR
Prime with red Lead, and white Lead, equal quantities.
For the second coat, use the same. For the third coat;
to four pounds white Lead, add two ounces Vermillion well ground
and mixed, and immediately while the third coat is green, shade
with India red in imitation of the grains and knots of cedar.
For shading, the India red should be well ground and mixed;
and placed on a pallet or pane of glass, that it may take easily
with the brush.
First and second coats may be laid with white Lead
and Spanish white in equal quantities; for the third coat use
white Lead only. Shade with Prussina blue, ground and
mixed with oil, and laid on with a graining brush while the
third coat is green; in imitation of clouded marble. Finish
with Copal Varnish.
For the three first coats, use white and yellow
Ochre in equal quantities. While the third coat is green, shade
with umbre prepared as before directed, and finish with Varnish.
Any other imitations of clouded or shaded work may be done in
a similar manner by varying the foregoing directions according
to the judgement and taste of the painter.
Floor Carpets or Oil'd Cloth are made as follws, viz.
Canvas or common tow cloth is sewed with
a flat seam, of the dimensions required; and nailed firm upon
the florr; then wet with water, even and thoroughly; and before
dry, is primedwith any common color. When this coat is
dry, a second coat is laid wiht the same---The third coat is
painted with a stone color; and when dry, the carpet is turned
and painted with any convenient color on the other side---When
dry, the carpet is turned black, and any flaws or cracks which
appear are filled with putty, and the surface is made smooth
With a chalk line in a Margin six to eight inches
wide is struck; and the remaining part is divided into squares
or diamonds of which one half taking then as placed in a diagonal
line succeeding each other, are painted white; and the other
half black. The squares may be clouded at pleasure. The margin
may be ornamented or clouded; and with little labor by using