Double-hung industrial windows duplicated
the look of traditional wooden windows. Metal doublehung windows
were early examples of a building product adapted to meet stringent
new fire code requirements for manufacturing and highrise buildings
in urban areas. Soon supplanted in industrial buildings by less
expensive pivot windows, doublehung metal windows regained popularity
in the 1940s for use in speculative suburban housing.
Pivot windows were an early type of industrial
window that combined inexpensive first cost and low maintenance.
Pivot windows became standard for warehouses and power plants
where the lack of screens was not a problem. The window shown
here is a horizontal pivot. Windows that turned about a vertical
axis were also manufactured (often of iron). Such vertical pivots
are rare today.
Projecting windows, sometimes called awning
or hopper windows, were perfected in the 1920s for industrial
and institutional buildings. They were often used in "combination"
windows, in which upper panels opened out and lower panels opened
in. Since each movable panel projected to one side of the frame
only, unlike pivot windows, for example, screens could be introduced.
Austral windows were also a product of the
1920s. They combined the appearance of the doublehung window
with the increased ventilation and ease of operation of the
projected window. (When fully opened, they provided 70% ventilation
as compared to 50% ventilation for double-hung windows.) Austral
windows were often used in schools, libraries and other public
Casement windows adapted the English tradition
of using wrought iron casements with leaded cames for residential
use. Rolled steel casements (either single, as shown, or paired)
were popular in the 1920s for cottage style residences and Gothic
style campus architecture. More streamlined casements were popular
in the 1930s for institutional and small industrial buildings.
Continuous windows were almost exclusively
used for industrial buildings requiring high overhead lighting.
Long runs of clerestory windows operated by mechanical tension
rod gears were typical. Long banks of continuous windows were
possible because the frames for such windows were often structural
elements of the building.