"Effective cultural resource management serves to (1)
integrate cultural resource concerns into other park planning
and management processes, (2) avoid or minimize adverse effects
on cultural resources, (3) provide information for interpretation
and public understanding, and (4) identify the most appropriate
uses for cultural resources and determine their ultimate treatment..."
A. Cultural Resource Management, 2. Planning, NPS-28:
Cultural Resource Management Guideline, National
"All managerial, financial and technical considerations
applied to retard deterioration that prevent damage and extend
the useful life of materials and objects in collections to ensure
their availability. These considerations include monitoring
and controlling appropriate environmental conditions; providing
adequate storage and physical protection; establishing exhibition
and loan policies and proper handling procedures; providing
for conservation treatment, emergency planning and the creation
and use of surrogates."
Benchmarks in Collection Care for Museums, Archives and Libraries:
A Self-assessment Checklist (PDF format file
to download), re:Source,
for Museums, Archives and Libraries, 2002, p. 15
"Treatment: All direct interventions carried out on the
cultural property with the aim of retarding further deterioration
or aiding in the interpretation of the cultural property. A
treatment may range from minimal stabilization to extensive
restoration or reconstruction."
D. Glossary, Code
of Ethics, Canadian
Association for Conservation of Cultural Property
and of the Canadian Association of Professional Conservators.
"Decisions regarding which treatments will best ensure
the preservation and public enjoyment of particular cultural
resources will be reached through the planning and compliance
process, taking into account:
- The nature and significance of a resource, and its condition
and interpretive value;
- The research potential of the resource;
- The level of intervention required by treatment alternatives;
- The availability of data, and the terms of any binding restrictions;
- The concerns of traditionally associated peoples and other
"Except for emergencies that threaten irreparable loss
without immediate action, no treatment project will be
undertaken unless supported by an approved planning document
appropriate to the proposed action.
"The preservation of cultural resources in their existing
states will always receive first consideration. Treatments entailing
greater intervention will not proceed without the consideration
of interpretive alternatives. The appearance and condition of
resources before treatment, and changes made during treatment,
will be documented. Such documentation will be shared.... Pending
treatment decisions reached through the planning process, all
resources will be protected and preserved in their existing
"Although each resource type is most closely associated
with a particular discipline, an interdisciplinary approach
is commonly needed to properly define specific treatment and
management goals for cultural resources. Policies applicable
to the various resource types follow."
5: Cultural Resource Management, 5.3 Stewardship, 5.3.5
Treatment of Cultural Resources, 2001
NPS Management Policies, National
"...French archaeologist A.N. Didron (1839) set down a
dictum which has since become so familiar that present-day conservationists
sometimes think it is a recent statement: "It is better
to preserve than to restore and better to restore than to reconstruct."
This hierarchy of values was formally recognized in the code
of ethics concerning treatment of historic architecture produced
by UNESCO in 1964 and known as the Venice Charter. Since the
1960s, conservationists in various countries have devised national
charters based on this principle. One of these is the Appleton
Charter for the Protection and Enhancement of the Built Environment]
, formulated by the English-speaking branch of ICOMOS Canada
in 1983. This philosophy forms the backbone of the Levels of
Intervention System used by many heritage professionals within
the Canadian Parks Service. This set of guidelines subdivides
conservation into two categories:
- at the level of minimum intervention is preservation (or
protection), which consists of interim
protection and stabilization;
- more radical intervention is defined as development (or
"The latter includes period restoration or rehabilitation
and, at the maximum level of intervention (i.e., replacement),
means either period reconstruction or contemporary redevelopment.
The recently proposed CPS Cultural Resource Management Policy
is also based on the concept of a "continuum of strategies,"
but has placed reconstruction within the category of presentation.
This clearly stated distinction between conservation and presentation
is fairly recent and reflects the accumulated experience of
CPS over the greater part of a century."
Ricketts, Shannon. "Raising the Dead: Reconstruction
Within The Canadian Parks Service," CRM, Volume
15, No. 5, p.13. National Park Service. [Download PDF format
Note: National Parks of Canada Policy
will be available in the future. PCM July 16, 2003.
" In the CRM [Cultural Resource Management] policy, five
principles are set down to enable us to make decisions or choices
about the scale and level of treatment of historic structures.
These are the principles of: