"Many values may be associated with heritage resources.
Those that are deemed significant will provide justification for
its protection and conservation. Such values range from historical
to commercial, and a single resource may possess conflicting values
that make management decisions sometimes especially difficult.
Value judgments may also change over time. Two groups of values
can be taken into consideration:
a) cultural values;
b) contemporary economic (use) values.
The presence or absence of these values will affect the safeguarding
and preservation of a heritage resource or, in other instances,
its neglect and destruction."
Jokilehto, Dr. Jukka. Management and Presentation of Cultural
Heritage Sites. [Download as a document file archived at CultureLink,
APRCCN (Asia-Pacific Regional Centre of the Culturelink Network).]
"The amendments to the Burra Charter in 1999 overtly recognize
that heritage value and significance may be embodied in the
uses, meanings and associations of a place, in addition to
the physical fabric of a place or structure. This represents
a significant shift towards integrating the tangible and intangible
and Training Needs for the Conservation and Protection of Cultural
Heritage: is it a case of 'one size fits all'?, Workshop
2 Key Note Presentation by May Cassar, Director of the Centre
for Sustainable Heritage, University
College London, Cultural Heritage Research: a pan-European
Challenge, Cracow, 16-18 May 2002.
"Conservation of a place should identify and take into
consideration all aspects of cultural and natural significance
without unwarranted emphasis on any one value at the
expense of others."
Article 5.1, Australia
ICOMOS Burra Charter, 1999, Australia
"...managing historic structures involves making choices.
"The first choice is: 'Which buildings deserve to be looked
after and at what level of care?' This may seem like a strange
question for a conservation agency. Nonetheless, our experience
shows that we do make these choices all the time. We have several
designation mechanisms for assigning value to our cultural
resources, so that we focus on those of greatest heritage significance
and leave aside others."
"Determination of heritage value reflects the cultural
values of societies in points of time and space, and may require re-adjustment when new information
is available or society's values alter appreciably."
Cameron, Christina. "Managing Heritage Structures in
the 1990s Current Issues Facing the CPS," CRM Volume
15, No. 6, p. 3. National Park Service.
"Values in our historic sites have steadily changed
over time, reflecting the perceptions of different contemporary observers. In recent years this process has accelerated
and values have become more complex. Today our professional
staff require greater effort both to sort out historic value
and to integrate it into the planning and delivery of conservation
Three value trends are evident:
- an increase in the diversity of values at any one site;
- a focus on the contextual value of built heritage; and
- an emerging consciousness of the value of historic structures
as they relate to commemoration history...."
"The enhanced values of our National Historic Sites
then are stimulating new questions about the neglect and the
care of historic structures. That care will relate directly
to the clarification of the values at each site. The challenge
will be to avoid the entrenchment of existing values inherent
in the assessment of individual historic structures. Only by
redefining the significance of the entire site, will levels
of care respond adequately to changing conceptions of value."
Cullen, Mary. "The Impact of Enhanced Values in the
Care of Historic Structures," CRM
Volume 15, No. 6, p. 10, 13. National
"Values and authenticity
9. Conservation of cultural heritage in all its forms and
historical periods is rooted in the values attributed to the
heritage. Our ability to understand these values depends,
in part, on the degree to which information sources about
these values may be understood as credible or truthful. Knowledge
and understanding of these sources of information, in relation
to original and subsequent characteristics of the cultural
heritage, and their meaning, is a requisite basis for assessing
all aspects of authenticity.
10. Authenticity, considered in this way and affirmed in
the Charter of Venice, appears as the essential qualifying
factor concerning values. The understanding of authenticity
plays a fundamental role in all scientific studies of the
cultural heritage, in conservation and restoration planning,
as well as within the inscription procedures used for the
World Heritage Convention and other cultural heritage inventories.
11. All judgments about values attributed to cultural properties
as well as the credibility of related information sources
may differ from culture to culture, and even within the same
culture. It is thus not possible to base judgments of values
and authenticity within fixed criteria. On the contrary, the
respect due to all cultures requires that heritage properties
must considered and judged within the cultural contexts to
which they belong.
12. Therefore, it is of the highest importance and urgency
that, within each culture, recognition be accorded to the
specific nature of its heritage values and the credibility
and truthfulness of related information sources.
13. Depending on the nature of the cultural heritage, its
cultural context, and its evolution through time, authenticity
judgments may be linked to the worth of a great variety of
sources of information. Aspects of the sources may include
form and design, materials and substance, use and function,
traditions and techniques, location and setting, and spirit
and feeling, and other internal and external factors. The
use of these sources permits elaboration of the specific artistic,
historic, social, and scientific dimensions of the cultural
heritage being examined."
Document on Authenticity, ICOMOS, Nara, Japan, 1994